Character Studies

Lesson 18

DAVID

"When your days are fulfilled and you rest with your fathers, I will set up your seed after you, who will come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be his Father, and he shall be My son."  (2 Sam. 7:12-14)

Text: 1 Samuel 16-2 Samuel; 1 Kings 1-2; 1 Chron. 11-29
Name: "Beloved" - Son of Jesse, tribe of Judah
Place: Bethlehem, Hebron, Jerusalem
Occupation: Shepherd, musician, poet, soldier, king
References: Matt. 22:43-45; Acts 13:22-23; Rom. 1:3; Heb. 11:32

FAMILY OF DAVID
1 Samuel 16
Tribe of Judah, son of Jesse, youngest of eight sons (16:1-13)
His physical appearance (16:12)
From Bethlehem (16:1)
Descendant of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth 4:17-22)
Ancestor of Jesus the Christ (Matt. 1:1, 6; Rom. 1:3)

DAVID: THE SHEPHERD
1 Samuel 16; Psa. 23
"The Lord is my shepherd" (16:11; Psa. 23)
Solitude
    -The harp, composer, developed physical strength & endurance, marksman
Responding to God
    -David's faith in God is developed: relationship, dependence, worship and praise
Anointed by Samuel to become king (16:1-13)
Inspired and strengthened by the Spirit of God (16:13)
Brought to King Saul's court (16:14-23)

DAVID: THE HUNTED
1 Samuel 17-30
"The Lord is my shield" (Psa. 28, 18)
Struggle
    -Against Goliath & the Philistines (victory of faith, 1 Sam. 17)
    -Against Saul (endurance of faith, 1 Sam. 18-26)
    -Against the Amalekites (the battle of faith, 1 Sam. 27)
Running from Saul (1 Sam. 18-26)
    -His love for Jonathan, Saul's son (18:1; 20:14-17)
    -His respect for king Saul as the Lord's anointed (24:1-22; 26:1-25)
    -His marriage to Abigail (1 Sam. 25:2-44)

DAVID: THE KING IN TRIUMPH
2 Samuel 1-10
"The Lord is my strength" (Psa. 54, 21, 31)
Ruling God's people
    -King over Judah in Hebron for 7 years (2:1-11)
    -King over all Israel in Jerusalem for 33 years (5:5)
    -God's covenant with David (7:12-14)
Success
    -War between the house of Saul and the house of David (2:12-4:12)
    -Conquest of Jerusalem (5:6-16)
    -Defeat of the Philistines (5:17-25)
    -The ark brought to Jerusalem (6:1-23; 1 Chron. 13, 15)
    -Further conquests (8, 10)
    -Kindness to Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan (9:1-13)

DAVID: THE KING IN CRISIS
2 Samuel 11-24; 1 Kings 1-2
"The Lord is my salvation" (Psa. 32, 51)
Sin and sorrow (11:1-12:23)
Trouble, treason and sin (12:15-24:25)
Solomon proclaimed king of Israel (1 Kgs. 1:1-2:12)

DAVID AND THE MESSIAH
God's promise to David (2 Sam. 7:12-14; Psa. 89:3-4, 35-37; 132:11; Acts 2:30)
"David" used to speak of the Messiah (Jer. 23:5-6; Ezek. 37:24)
Messianic Psalms: 2, 22, 45, 69, 89, 110, 118, 132

LESSONS FROM DAVID
The Lord looks at the heart of man.
The battle is the Lord's and those who trust in Him will have victory.
Do not repay evil for evil (cf. Rom. 12:17-21).
Willingness to honestly confess and repent of sin brings God's forgiveness.
Forgiveness does not remove the consequences of sin.
The desire for revenge is a strong emotion, but vengeance is not justified. Vengeance belongs to God (Rom. 12:17-21).
We must respect authority and those in power (Rom. 13:1-7; 1 Pet. 2:13-17).
We easily see sin in others, but not so easily in ourselves.
God's judgments are righteous and just.

QUESTIONS
1. What is the central lesson from David's victory over Goliath? (1 Sam. 17)

2. Why did Saul resent David?

3. Describe the love David and Jonathan had for each other.

4. Did David and his men sin in eating the showbread? (1 Sam. 21:1-9; Lev. 24:5-9; Matt. 12:1-8)

5. Who was Abigail? What honorable thing did she do? (1 Sam. 25)

6. From where and over whom did David reign as king?

7. How did David establish Jerusalem as his capital?

8. Why was Uzzah killed? (2 Sam. 6:1-11; 1 Chron. 13:9-12; 15:2, 12-13)

9. What did David want to do for God? What would God do for David?

10. What contributed to David's sin with Bathsheba?

11. Name the consequences of David's sin with Bathsheba? (2 Sam. 12:10-15)

12. Who was Abner? Joab? Amnon? Tamar? Absalom?

13. What was David's sin regarding the census of the people? (2 Sam. 24; 1 Chron. 21)

14. What preparations did David make for the temple of God? (1 Chron. 22-29)